Annual Reports


Attachment Vocabulary

  • Attachment – is an emotional bond which gives a sense of security. The child must obtain this sense of security from his/her parent who ideally will act as the older, wiser, protective figure who calmly and lovingly organizes the child and the environment during times of distress.
  • Attachment Figure – is typically the primary caregiver and the child will seek this person when in need of a sense of security.
  • Cue – A direct or indirect signal from the child for a specific need to be met (not designed to mislead).
  • Miscue – A misleading or contradictory signal from the child designed to protect the child from the pain of having a specific need exposed and/or unmet.
  • Proximity Seeking – The desire to be near the individual(s) one is attached to.
  • Safe Haven – Returning to the attachment figure for comfort and safety in the face of a fear or threat.
  • Secure Attachment– the parent and child are in sync that results when parents/caregivers respond with sensitivity, promptly and appropriately when the child is in distress: hurt, sick or emotionally upset.
  • Insecure Attachment– the parent and child out of synch that results when parents/caregivers do not respond either sensitively, promptly, and appropriately when the child is in distress: hurt, sick or emotionally upset.
  • Secure Base – The attachment figure acts as a base of security from which the child can explore the surrounding environment.
  • Separation Anxiety – Anxiety that occurs when the attachment figure in absent or inaccessible.


Useful Websites


Further Reading

  • Benoit, D. (1999) Characteristics of infant behaviour (strange situation) Conference held in Thunder Bay, Ontario
  • Bowlby, J. (1969) Attachment , Vol. 1 of Attachment and loss. London: Hogarth Press. New York: Basic Books; Harmondsworth: Penguin (1971).
  • Bowlby, Sir Richard (2004). Fifty Years of Attachment Theory. London: Karnac on behalf of The Winnicott Clinic of Psychotherapy.
  • Cooper, Hoffman, Marvin & Powell. Circle of Security © 2000
  • Cozolino, Louis J. (2002). The Neuroscience of Psychotherapy: Building and Rebuilding the Human Brain. New York: W.W. Norton & Company
  • Crittenden, P.M. (1997c) Truth, Error, Omission, Distortion, and Deception: The Application of Attachment Theory to the Assessment and Treatment of Psychological Disorder. In S.M.C.
  • Dollinger and L.F. DiLalla (Eds.) Assessment and Intervention across the Lifespan, Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum
  • Crittenden, P.M. (2006). A dynamic-maturational model of attachment. Australia and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy. 27, 105-115.
  • Crittenden, P.M. (2006). Proceedings from Attachment & Psychopathology, Unpublished. Toronto: Hincks-Dellcrest.
  • Crittenden, P.M. (2006).
  • Erickson, M.F., Kurz-Reimer, K., (1999). Infants, Toddlers, and Families: A Framework for Support and Intervention. The Guilford Press, New York: New York
  • Freud, S. (1895) Project for a scientific psychology. New introductory lectures in psychoanalysis: Standard edition, 22, 3-182.
  • Greene, R.W. (2001). The Explosive Child. New York: Harper Collins.
  • Goldberg, S. (2000). Attachment and Development. New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Goossens, F. A. & Van Izendoorn, M. H. (1990). Quality of infants’ attachment to professional caregivers : Relation to infant-parent attachment and day care characteristics. Child Development, 61, 832-837.
  • Howes, C., Matheson, C. & Hamilton, C. (1994). Children’s relationships with peers : Differential associations with aspects of the teacher-child relationship. Child Development, 65 (1) 253-263.
  • Levy, T. (2000) Handbook of Attachment Interventions. Academic Press, London: England
  • Main, M and Soloman,J. (1986)’Discovery of an insecure disoriented attachment pattern: procedures, findings and implications for the classification of behavior.’ Affective Development in Infancy, ed. T. Braxelton and M. Youngman, Norwood, NJ: Ablex
  • MacLean, P.D. (1985) Brain evolution relating to family, play, and the separation call. Archives of General Psychiatry, 42, 405-417.
  • Morin. V., (1999). Fun to grow on. Magnolia St. Publishers, Chicago.
  • Neufeld, G. Maté, G. (2004). Hold on to your Kids: Why Parents Matter. Knopf, Canada.
  • Pope-Edwards, C., Raikes, H. (2002). Extending the Dance: Relationship –Based Approaches to Infant/Toddler Care and Education. Young Children: July 2002.